Vol 13 Issue 38 ~ Editor: Rev. Fr. Courtney Edward Krier
September 19, 2020 ~ Saint Januarius, opn!
1. What is the Holy Eucharist
2. Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost
3. Saint Eustace and Companions
4. Family and Marriage
5. Articles and notices
We as Catholics are having a political struggle in our day. But one may recall the time of Our Lord when the Romans occupied Palestine (Palestina as the Romans called the region, which included Judea, Samaria, Galilee, and the coast of Tyre and Sidon). There were the various factions amongst the people living there: the Zealots seeking, by guerilla warfare, to drive out the Romans; the publicans interacting as agents and tax collectors for the Romans; the Herodians supporting Herod who was the puppet of the Romans; the Pharisees who were opportunists and used everyone to keep their power as the leaders of the Judeans; and, then there were the followers of the Christ who heard Him say:
You have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. But I say to you not to resist evil: but if one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other: And if a man will contend with thee in judgment, and take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him.
And whosoever will force thee one mile, go with him other two, give to him that asketh of thee and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away. You have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy. But I say to you, Love your enemies: do good to them that hate you: and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you: That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise upon the good, and bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust.
For if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? do not even the publicans this? And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? do not also the heathens this? Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. (Matt. 5:38-48)
In the end, the only ones left were the followers of Christ, persons like the former Zealot Simon, the former Publican Matthew, the former Pharisee Joseph of Arimathea. The followers of Christ went through persecution, they went through martyrdom, they increased in number, as prophesied, like the mustard seed (cf. Matt. 13:31). Why, because they lived these words of Christ. They lived in each age not seeking revenge, not doing evil, but doing good to their enemies. In truth, when Christians sought revenge—the pillage of Jerusalem, the pillage of Constantinople and Byzantium, the mistreatment of the Protestants, the pillage of the indigenous populations—they suffered grievously as these peoples were wrenched from them and bringing them to Christ failed in the end. It is as though Christ repeats that we are no different than they when we do what they do and withdraws His grace and blessing from us. May we not repeat history. May we pray and instruct and help our enemies in their need so that, as Saint Paul says: But if thy enemy be hungry, give him to eat; if he thirst, give him to drink. For, doing this, thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head. (Rom. 12:20) For if one really were to consider it, we scandalize (that is give an excuse) to our enemy to do wrong when we act as they do. Paul, writing this letter to the Romans, would be crucified by the Romans (with Saint Peter)—but, paradoxically, we are the Roman Catholic Church.
When Peter was in prison the Church prayed without ceasing and he was led out by his Angel. (cf. Acts 12:5ff) May the Church still pray without ceasing, as when there was the battle of Lepanto (Our Lady of Rosary—October 7) and the battle for Vienna (Holy Name of Mary—September 12) and the Church obtained the victory.
As always, enjoy the readings provided for your benefit.—The Editor
WHAT IS THE HOLY EUCHARIST
By Rev. Courtney Edward Krier
Offered: Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
The Holy Eucharist is a Sacrament and a Sacrifice. That in the Holy Eucharist the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ is contained was discussed in the last section regarding the Real Presence. The Presence of Christ is not to remain static, but to be offered and received. In this section the offering, or sacrifice, of the Eucharistic Christ will be developed, but will be further amplified in the section on the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
The Real Presence of Christ is referred to as the Sacramental Presence of Christ. It is said not in the sense that it is not a real, objective presence, but that Christ’s Presence is, in itself, a Sacrament. This is why the term, The Blessed Sacrament, is applied to the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist. The distinction between the Holy Eucharist as a Sacrament and as a Sacrifice is described by Pohle as follows:
A Sacrament serves primarily for the sanctification of souls, whereas a Sacrifice has for its object to glorify God by adoration, thanksgiving, prayer, and expiation. The recipient of the one is man, of the other, God, Moreover, the two have distinct modes of being. The Eucharistic Sacrament is a permanent thing (res permanens); the Mass is a transient act (actio transiens). Finally, the Sacrifice of the Mass requires the consecration of two distinct elements (bread and wine), whereas the Sacrament of the Eucharist may be effected (though only per accidens) by the consecration of one element only. (Op. cit., 272.)
Yet, as stated previously, there cannot be the Sacrament without the Sacrifice. That is, the whole reality of the Holy Eucharist must be intended, not just partially: You cannot just intend to change the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ without also intending to offer in Sacrifice and receive both as Sacrament and Sacrifice. In this sense, it is more than consecrating water for the sacrament of Baptism, for the water is not baptism; the same for consecrating Holy Chrism or the Oil of the Infirm. They may be the matter for a sacrament, but not the Sacrament.
This is my body. . . . For this is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins. (Matt. 26:26, 28)
For as often as you shall eat this bread, and drink the chalice, you shall shew the death of the Lord, until he come. (1 Cor. 11:26)
Sacrifice and oblation thou didst not desire; [but thou hast fitted a body for me.] Burnt offering and sin offering thou didst not require: Then said I, Behold I come. In the head of the book it is written of me That I should do thy will: O my God, I have desired it, and thy law in the midst of my heart. (Psalm 39:7-9; cf. Heb. 10:5ff.)
Offerings to God have been made to God since the beginning of mankind. This is witnessed in the sacrifices offered by Cain and Abel.
In focusing on the word offered, the term must be set in the understanding the Church holds. Sacrifice can be broadly used to the point of even being figurative, and therefore, of no significance—such as sacrificing the front seat to have a better seat in the middle of a movie theater. It means here, giving up something—but receiving something better. It may better be seen as expressing a choice such as choosing to drive instead of taking a plane. In this context, that of choice, everyone’s life is a series of sacrifices and no one sacrifice would be considered different than all others. This is why one must first define sacrifice, and it is done so in that of the sacrifices of Cain and Abel.
And it came to pass after many days, that Cain offered, of the fruits of the earth, gifts to the Lord. Abel also offered of the firstlings of his flock, and of their fat: and the Lord had respect to Abel, and to his offerings. But to Cain and his offerings he had no respect: and Cain was exceedingly angry, and his countenance fell. (Gen. 4:3-5)
In this one can recognize the elements of a true sacrifice, which are, according to Pohle:
(a) a sacrificial gift (res oblata); [fruits of the earth, lamb]
(b) a sacrificing minister (minister legitimus); [Cain, Abel]
(c) a sacrificial action (actio sacrifica); [offering]
(d) a sacrificial end or object (finis sacrificii). [to the Lord]
Before explaining each, the words, sacrifice, offering, and immolation all have the same meaning and can be used in exchange of each other, though each word may stress a specific aspect of the offering.
1 Sacrifice, from sacrum facere, to make sacred. By sacrifice in the real sense is universally understood the offering of a sense-perceptible gift to the Deity as an outward manifestation of our veneration for Him and with the object of attaining communion with Him. (Pohle, Sacrifice in CE)
2 Offer, from offerre, in the meaning of the act of offering a sacrifice.
3 Immolate, from immolare, or further extending the meaning of a sacrifice: Strictly speaking however, this offering does not become a sacrifice until a real change has been effected in the visible gift (e.g. by slaying it, shedding its blood, burning it, or pouring it out)—ibid.
The Hebrew מִנְחָ֖ה min·ḥāh meaning an offering, a sacrifice, an oblation is used in Genesis 4:3ff in describing the sacrifices of Cain and Abel, and is translated in the Greek Septuagint as θυσίαν thysían, or sacrifice and in the Vulgate as offerre[t] or offering. As Abel offered of the firstlings of his flock, and of their fat (cf. Gen. 4:4), one cannot deny an immolation, or the slaying, shedding of blood, [and] burning it. In the sacrifice of Melchisedech and the sacrifice of Abraham the use of modifiers expresses the sacrifice. In Genesis 14:18 the Hebrew is הוֹצִ֖יא hō·w·ṣî, brought forth, the Greek Septuagint uses the word ἐξήνεγκεν exínenken, and the Latin Vulgate proferens, all having the English meaning brought forth. Attached to the word, priest (Melchisedech), it would point to that of an offering—as a priest has no other meaning than one who offers sacrifices. Even regarding the sacrifice of Isaac in Genesis 22:2, offer him for an holocaust, the Hebrew being: וְהַעֲלֵ֤הוּ לְעֹלָ֔ה lə·‘ō·lāh . . . wə·ha·‘ă·lê·hū, the Septuagint ἀνένεγκον . . . ὁλοκάρπωσιν anénenkon . . . olokárposin and the Vulgate offeres . . . in holocaustum, provide the understanding of a sacrifice in that of a burnt offering. In viewing these sacrifices it is done so to in reference to the Holy Eucharist as a Sacrifice for these three sacrifices are mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as the archetypes of the Sacrifice of the New Testament: And this do Thou deign to regard with gracious and kindly attention and hold acceptable, as Thou didst deign to accept the offerings of Abel, Thy just servant, and the sacrifice of Abraham our patriarch, and that which Thy chief priest Melchisedech offered unto Thee, a holy sacrifice and a spotless victim.
When speaking of the Sacrifice of the New Testament two other words must be clarified. The first is re-present, from the Latin repraesentare. In modern parlance, represent has the meaning of taking the place of in a transfer of something to a lesser type or in a symbolic and figurative sense. The Latin repraesentare is understood to bring before one, to bring back (cf. Deferrari, s. repraesento.) To keep the Latin meaning, the word is translated as re-present, in opposition to represent. The word re-present is to be understood as presenting again, though not exactly the same, but yet the same (in equality). To distinguish from the common meaning, the hyphen is added to point that here re-present must have the meaning of presenting again the sacrifice of Christ in a real manner—not in a symbolic or figurative or even taking the place of, but the same sacrifice because it is the same Priest (Christ) offering and the same Victim (Christ) offered, only the manner of offering is different. This will be explained more fully later. The point considered is that the Sacrifice is neither figurative nor does it replace the Sacrifice of the Cross, but is one and the same re-presented. These two prominent errors, figurative or substituting, are chiefly propagated in order to deny the reality of the Sacrifice of the New Testament continuing through the Sacrifice of the Mass.
The other word, perhaps not so controversial, but perhaps not understood because of today’s common usage, is that of victim. One speaks of the victim of a crime—as opposed to the perpetrator. In this manner, one might view Christ as simply a victim of cruel perpetrators and not that of a voluntary sacrificial Victim that is set aside (consecrated) and offered to God in atonement. It would be clearer to one who accepts Original Sin as a reality and the Old Testament a preparation for the act of atonement Christ made on Calvary more clearly understands His being a Sacrificial Victim. To those who only see an unfortunate event causing the death of Jesus Christ, their understanding of His Victimhood would only make sense as a one-time event that resulted in His suffering and death and would preclude the possibility of accepting that He is a Victim offering Himself continuously in holy Mass.
What is a Sacrifice?
The elements of a sacrifice were enumerated above: a) a victim b) offered c) by a priest d) to God. Not only does one see it in the sacrifices of Cain and Abel, but it is also found in all times and in all places among all peoples before Christ, and still amongst the primitive after Christ.
Amongst the Indians (India), the Vedics had the most extensive sacrificial rituals that allowed them to influence the gods in their favor when offering the sacrifice. The Hindus further developed it into temple worship with praise and piety even though mixed with superstition. The Persians, in the attempt to obtaining power over evil offered sacrifice to their god, Ahura Mazda. The Greeks and Romans offered sacrifices for favors from their gods or appease them in natural disasters. The Chinese offered sacrifice through their Emperor who alone had direct contact with heaven and further centralized through Confucius. Even Buddhists in China honored this system. The Egyptians built temples where only Pharaoh and the priests were allowed to enter to perform strictly regulated sacrificial rites at first to the god Ammon-Ra and then to adding animal worship. In Babylon and Assyria the king was the high priest, who, with those of a priestly caste offered worship to the gods and ate of the sacrifices in a sacrificial banquet. The Canaanites built temples and altars on high hills and sacrificed little children to their god Moloch in appeasement (living a very immoral life their fear of justice seemingly drove them to greater immorality in worship). The Phoenicians were perhaps even more immoral, and their human sacrifices expressed the degradation of their lives of cruelty and sensuality. [It is hypothesized that lost Phoenician sailors brought both the concept of pyramids and human sacrifice to the Mayans and Aztecs] One may gather that the concept of sacrifice from obtaining favor to appeasing wrath determined the sacrifice offered. It also distinguishes the sacrifices of the pagans from that of the believers in the true God.
The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers
M. F. Toal
THE GOSPEL OF THE SUNDAY
Luke xiv. 1-11
At that time: When Jesus went into the house of one of the chief of the Pharisees, on the sabbath day, to eat bread, they watched him. And, behold, there was a certain man before him that had the dropsy. And Jesus answering, spoke to the lawyers and Pharisees, saying: Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day? But they held their peace. But he, taking him, healed him and sent him away. And answering them he said: Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fall into a pit and will not immediately draw him out on the sabbath day? And they could not answer him to those things.
And he spoke a parable also to them that were invited, marking how they chose the first seats at the table, saying to them: When thou art invited to a wedding, sit not down in the first place, lest perhaps one more honourable than thou be invited by him; and he that inviteth thee and him come and say to thee: Give this man place. And then thou begin with shame to take the lowest place. But, when thou art invited, go, sit down in the lowest place; that, when he who inviteth thee cometh, he may say to thee: Friend, go up higher. Then shalt thou have glory before them that sit at table with thee. Because everyone that exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
EXPOSITION FROM THE CATENA AUREA
And answering them he said: Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fall into a pit and will not immediately draw him out, on the sabbath day?
THEOPHYLACTUS: As though to say: If the law forbids you to have compassion on the sabbath, then neither should you have a care for your son, should he fall into danger on the sabbath. But why do I speak of your son, when you will not neglect even your ox, should you see it in danger?1 BEDE: In which He makes clear to the Pharisees watching Him, that He is accusing them also of avarice, revealing greed in their concern for animals. How much more should Christ not help man, who is more precious than any beast?
St. Eustachius and Companions, Martyrs
ST. EUSTACHIUS, called by the Greeks Eustathius, and before his conversion named Placidus, was a nobleman who suffered martyrdom at Rome, about the reign of Adrian, together with his wife Theopista, called before her baptism Tatiana, and two sons, Agapius and Theopistus. These Greek names they must have taken after their conversion to the faith. The ancient sacramentaries mention in the prayer for the festival of St. Eustachius, his profuse charities to the poor, on whom he bestowed all his large possessions, some time before he laid down his life for his faith. An ancient church in Rome was built in his honour, with the title of a Diacony; the same now gives title to a cardinal. His body lay deposited in this church till, in the twelfth age, it was translated to that of St. Denis, near Paris. His shrine was pillaged in this place, and part of his bones burnt by the Huguenots in 1567; but a portion of them still remains in the parish church which bears the name of St. Eustachius in Paris.
How noble is it to see integrity and virtue triumphing over interest, passion, racks, and death, and setting the whole world at defiance! To see a great man preferring the least duty of justice, truth, or religion to the favour or menace of princes; readily quitting estate, friends, country, and life, rather than consent to anything against his conscience; and at the same time, meek, humble, and modest in his sufferings; forgiving from his heart and tenderly loving his most unjust and treacherous enemies and persecutors! Passion and revenge often make men furious; and the lust of power, worldly honour, applause, or wealth may prompt them to brave dangers; but these passions leave them weak and dastardly in other cases, and are themselves the basest slavery, and most grievous crimes and misery. Religion is the only basis on which true magnanimity and courage can stand. It so enlightens the mind as to set a man above all human events, and to preserve him in all changes and trials steady and calm in himself; it secures him against the errors, the injustices, and frowns of the world, it is by its powerful motives the strongest spur to all generous actions, and under afflictions and sufferings a source of unalterable peace, and overflowing joy which spring from an assured confidence that God’s will is always most just and holy, and that he will be its protector and rewarder. Does religion exert this powerful influence in us? Does it appear in our hearts, in our actions and conduct? It is not enough to encounter dangers with resolution; we must with equal courage and constancy vanquish pleasure and the softer passions, or we possess not the virtue of true fortitude.
(Butler’s Lives of the Saints)
Boys and Girls!
REV. THOMAS J. HOSTY, M.A., S.T.B.
HAPPY BIRTHDAY, BROTHER!
GOOD MORNING, BOYS AND GIRLS!
I’ve been asking you too many easy questions lately, so I think I’ll give you a real hard one today. I hope that one or two of you may be able to answer this “stumper,” Ready? Here it is. Today is December 18. What great day will we celebrate one week from today? I’ll give you a hint—it begins with the letter “C.”
That’s right—it’s Christmas! I guess I never realized how smart you actually are. Maybe I’ve been looking at your report cards upside down!
On Christmas day, we usually get some presents. I know that all of you are hoping to get some. (Do you know what I found in my Christmas stocking last year? My foot!) Seriously though, I wonder if any of you can tell me who gave the first Christmas present, and what it was. Yes, it was God Himself who gave the first present, and that present was His own divine Son. God gave us His own Son to be our brother. And so on Christmas day, we are really celebrating our Brother’s birthday.
Speaking of brothers reminds me of a story that I heard about two brothers, many years ago. It was told by the famous Jesuit priest, Father Dan Lord, at my first retreat at the seminary. It is almost twenty-five years since that retreat, but I can still remember that story as though I heard it yesterday. I’m sure Father Lord won’t mind my telling it to you, I hope it makes as big an impression upon you as it did upon me.
The story began in a crowded New York City street. Two boys, brothers, were on their way to school. The younger one dashed across the street before the traffic lights had completely changed. Suddenly there was a grinding of tires, as a huge truck that had been trying to make the light came to a sudden stop. As it did, there was a sickening crash, and the small body of the boy was knocked to the curb. A crowd quickly gathered, but luckily someone had enough sense to get a nearby doctor from his office. A policeman then called an ambulance, and the boy was hustled to the nearest hospital. Of course, they took his brother with him in the ambulance.
As soon as they reached the hospital, they put the injured boy on the operating table. After a quick examination, the doctors said that there was only one chance for the boy to live, and that would require an immediate blood transfusion. (A transfusion means taking blood from one person’s veins and putting it into another person’s body.) That isn’t as easy as it sounds, because there are four different types of blood. The doctors had to get the boy’s type of blood or they could not help him, Nowadays, we have all four types of blood stored in what are called blood banks. They’re used for emergencies just like this one. But this accident happened before there was any such thing as a blood bank. Where in the world could they get the right type of blood on such short notice?
One of the doctors had an idea. Why not test his older brother’s blood? Maybe it would be the same type. The doctor lost no time in carrying out his plan. He dashed into the next room and asked the older boy if he would give his blood to save his brother’s life. Without a moment’s hesitation, the boy said that he would be glad to give his blood. No time was lost in testing his blood, and, thanks be to God, it proved to be exactly the type they needed. Then the transfusion was given to the little boy. As the blood drained from the arm of the older brother into the body of the younger one, the result was almost miraculous. In a few minutes it was clear that the younger boy would live. With a sigh of relief, the doctor who had performed the transfusion turned to the older boy and said to him, “You saved your brother’s life!”
The boy stared at him for a second, and then answered in a puzzled tone of voice, “Yes—but I’m still alive.”
“What do you mean,” said the doctor. “You’re still alive? Did you think you were going to die? Why should you give your life to save him?”
The older boy looked at him and replied very simply, “Why, isn’t he my little brother?”
Boys and girls, if the angels who sang around the crib at Bethlehem, when Christ was born, had asked Him why He left a wonderful place like heaven, to come down and be born in a cold, damp cave the way He did for us, He could have said the very same thing: “Why, isn’t he my little brother?” or “Isn’t she my little sister?”
For we are the younger brothers and sisters of Christ! We were adopted into His family when we were baptized. That is why Christmas should mean so much to us. It is the birthday of our Brother. When you kneel before the crib, on Christmas day, I want every one of you to whisper to Him, “Happy birthday, dear Jesus, my Brother! Please help me to celebrate your birthday with you some day in heaven!”
Father Krier will be in Spokane, Washington, October 6-9. He will be in Pahrump, Nevada, October 15 and Eureka, Nevada, October 22.
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